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Full text of "California redwood for the engineer / California Redwood Association."

J&OZ 




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CALIFORNIA 

REDWOOD 

FOR THE 

ENGINEER 







CALIFORNIA REDWOOD ASSOCIATION 

SAN FRANCISCO 



Copyright IQ17 

by . . 

California Redwood Association 






CALIFORNIA 



REDWOOD 




n 01 western Pacific R. R. at Willits, California. Built throughout of California Redwood 






Engineering and Railroads 

BKDWOOD'S resistance to rot is recognized as standard by railroad, 
mining, and construction engineers, and Redwood is extensively 
used by them for a great variety of such purposes. It is specially 
^suited for tanks, pipe lines, flumes, timbers, irrigation and drain 
boxes, concrete forms, lagging, etc. 



Railroad Uses 

imie of the many railroad uses for 
Redu ood are: 

FOR EQUIPMENT 

Refrigerator Car Roofing. 
Stock Box and Metal 
Covered Roof, 

Siding for Freight Equip- 
ment. 

Siding for Outside Frame 
Box Cars. 

Baggage and Express Mould- 
ing, Casing, Lining, and 
Sheathing. 



Passenger Equipment Car 
Bottom Lining. 

Inside Lining for Freight 
Equipment Cars (except 
refrigerator cars). 

Lining and Ceiling for Re- 
frigerator Cars. 

Passenger Car Outside 
Sheathing and Panels 

Letter Boards. 

Moulding. 

Postal Car Lining and 
Ceiling. 

Baggage and Express Car 
Ceiling. 

Eave Facia Moulding. 






WILL NOT SHRINK, SWELL OR WARP 

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REDWOOD 




JC 



ADDRESSED TO: Hobart Building 

San Francisco. 

SOUTHERN PACIFIC COMPANY. 

OFFICE OF CHIEF ENGINEER. 

1136 Jame? Flood Bldg«, San Francisco , Calif 

February 10th , 1917 



fr**DAft£ 
11-1 



Deer Sir:- 



Southern Pacific Company usee redwood ties by preference to 



any other ties available on the Pacific Coast. 

Our ordinary consumption is from 750,000 to 1,000,000 redwood 
tiee per year, perhaps an average of about 900,000 for maintenance of 

trade I tie renewals). 

With Southern Pacific Company rolling stock in use at present 
we always tie plate redwood ties, and also tie plate other ties, except- 
ing on unimportant branch lines. 

Some years ago when the weight on engine driving wheel axles 
was about one-half what it is now. we did not tie plate redwood ties. 

The life of redwood ties in track is variable as affected by 
decay, dependent upon the local conditions, character of soil and 
rainfall, etc, but the redwood tie under any conditions is the most 
durable tie available here. 

I have known redwood tiesto be in use in main line track as 
long as 22 years, and the average redwood tie under all conditions can 
be relied on with us for about 12 years, perhaps more* 



Yours respectfully , 






Chief Engineer, 

Southern Pacific Company. 






Redwood tie is most durable 



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«fe 






NORTHWESTERN PACIFIC RAILROAD COMPANY 



w 



PALMER 

64 PlM St Sas FRANCIftCC 



(COPY) 



April 29, 1914 



Dear Sir: 

practically all of the tracks of the Northwestern 
Pacific Railroad Company, some 500 miles, are laid with redwood 
ties- Many of the ties which were used in the original con- 
struction of the lines ultimately consolidated into the North- 
western Pacific, were in the track 18 to 20 years before removal. 

hen built, tO and 56-pound rail was laid upon these ties 
without tie plates. Uoon tangents and upon branch lines where 
the traffic was light, some of these ties were taken out of the 
track at the end of 25 years practically sound so far as decay 
was concerned. However, through adzing on account of outer rail 
of curve rolling, and frequent re-spiking for gauge, the ties 
had become useless. 

In 1903, the Northwestern Pacific replaced old 55-oound 
steel between Cloverdale and Ukiah with heavy rail, and at that 
time many of the ties replaced were those laid in this track 
in 1839/ 



will 



At present, the Northwestern Pacific is using a 
6 x 8 !l redwood tie, with Karriman Lines 1 flat tie plate, 
B x Bfc n $ wieghlng 6.36 pounds, and believe that such ties 
give from 12 to 15 years of service except where laid on 
sharp curves. Vie are operating over this track ten-wheel 
engines with driving wheel load of 134,000 pounds, total 
loaded weight of engine, 176,000 pounds, and the tie plates 
in five years nave no more than bedded themselves in the tie. 

Considering the durability of the wood, and with 
proper tie plate protection under rail of adequate weight and 
size for the power used, we believe a redwood tie of the size 
above mentioned gives better service than bl 7 x 9" tie of 
less durable woods. 

Yours truly, 

(Signed) W. 5. PALMAR. 



Life of Redwood ties j8 to 25 years on this road 



WILL NOT SHRINK, SWELL OR WARP 



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REDWOOD 




I> -ior of railroad station at U'illits, California. Finished h Redwood 



BRIDGES, CULVERTS 
AND TRESTLES 

I oundation limbers. 
Cross Ties for Bridges. 

hid Sil Is 
Trestle. ( aps, Posts, and 

Sills. 
Cribl tg. 
Posts. 

MOTIVE POWER 

Lagging for Locomotive 

Boilers. 
Boxing, ■ mporary ( irain 

D< -s and ( )rdinarv 
Work. 

Cabinet. 

Office Case Work, etc. 

Patterns. 

In le Finish in Uuildings. 

Cornices. 



Window and Door Facings. 

Sign Boards. 

Wide Mouldings. 

Sash. 

Cabinet Work. 

Insulating Boards and Wall 

Ceiling of Refrigerator and 

Freight Cars. 
Passenger Car Ceiling. 
Stripping for Powder Cars. 

ROADWAY 

Ties. 

Fence Boards. 

Flumes. 

POSTS 
Line and amp Posl - 

( Kl< trical I tept !. 
1 i nee Posts. 
Sign Post 

Signal Posts. 



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REDWOOD 







* of railroad station at Willits, Califon \ng Redzvood c struction details 



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REDWOOD 




The beautiful interior of the city ticket office of the Santo Fe Ry. at Los Angeles. All Redwood and 
a striking example of the exquisite decorative effects possible with this remarkable wood 



BUILDINGS 

Ceiling. 

Foundation Timbers. 

Sheathing and I'nder- 

flooring. 
Wainscot. 

Shingles. 

Barn Siding. 

Drop and Lap Siding. 

MAINTENANCE 

Cribbing. 

Finishing Lumb< r. 
Signs. 

WATER TANKS 
Staves and Bottoms. 

SIGNAL DEPT. 
Trunking and Capping 

Redv d <!<)• not have to be treated 
ili artificial pi servatives to pro- 
ng its life. Nature impregnated 



Redwood with a natural preservative 
that grew into the wood. For engi- 
neering purposes in contact with 

ground or moisture, Redwood can be 
depended upon to maintain its full 
strength and service from 15 years 
upward. 

Redwood Railroad Ties 

The hardest possible service to which 
wood can be subjected is the railway 

lie. 

It is not only in constant contact 

with the ground, but it must stand 
the strain and stresses of 'swiftly- 
moving heavy trains. In his report on 

"Timber; An Elementary Discussion 

of the Characteristics and Properties 

of Wood," to the Division of Forest- 
ry. U. S. Department of Agricul- 
ture. Filbert Roth, special agent in 



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charge of timber physics, gives the 
following table on 

THE RANGE OF DURABILITY 

IN RAILROAD TIES 

YEARS 

Redwood 12 

Black Locust 10 

Cypress and Red Cedar ... 10 
Oak (white and chestnut). 8 

Chestnut 8 

Tamarack 7 to 8 

Cherry. Black Walnut 

Locust 7 

Elm 6 to 7 

Long Leaf Pine 6 

Hemlock 4 to 6 

Spruce 5 

Red and Black Oaks . . .4 to 5 
Ash, Beech, Maple 4 

To get best service out of the Red- 
wood tie under heavy equipment tie 
plates should be used. 

Redwood ties are in big demand in 
South America, England and the 



continent, Australia and the Orient, 
because of its resistance to decay and 
resistance to attack of destructive in- 
sects so common in the tropical coun- 
tries. 

Car Siding, Stations, Etc. 

Redwood is splendidly adapted for 
car siding and roofing because it is 
sufficiently strong, light in weight, 
does not shrink, swell or warp, is 
hard to set on fire and burns very 
slowly, is not subject to wet or dry 
rot, and takes and holds paint per- 
fectly. 

The absence of shrink or sw r ell is 
particularly desirable for car siding 
and roofing because of the travel of 
the car through varying climatic con- 
ditions. 

Redwood is generally specified for 
railroad stations in the western coun- 
try because of its extreme durability 
in contact with the ground and ex- 
posure to the weather, its satisfactory 
painting surface and its fire resist- 




Railroad trestle. 640 feet long and 144 fee* '"£"■ h "' ,t entirely of Redwood 



WILL NOT SHRINK, SWELL OR WARP 



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Rcdwooc atcr tat are ca le of tan g j ed by above 

>graf 7 i tar \l ut dan c thri It 

tl destroyed tli, pi . t o- ' / » s\ar g and t Wo\ \ % 

San From he third tank of anotltct had i he ei ely repla 



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ance. Redwood is specified for such 
work to reduce the upkeep cost on 
-mall stations. 

Tanks and Vats 

Redwood makes a superior stave 

for tanks. 

kedwood is a non-conductor of 
heat and cold; 2 inches of Redwood 
is equivalent in insulating power to 
approximately 30 inches of steel or 
concrete. Tins is an element of high 
importance in the stave for this use 

because it preserves the temperature 
of the contents of the tank. 

Redwood staves are made fron 
clear heart straight-grain stock and 
come in standard seis of 6 10 9 and 

10 to 20 feet in length. 

Redwood's long life and its resist 

ance to decay or corrosive acids and 
alkalis make it extremely valuable for 



tanks, kedwood tanks can handle 
muriatic acid solutions up to 6 per 
cent, and up to 28 per cent of nitro- 
hydrochloric acid. 

Redwood tanks are used in copper 
mines, where strong solutions of de- 
structive acids are necessary in refin- 
ing processes; in chemical works, 
tanneries, breweries, soap factories 
and other manufacturing processes 
where the tank is called upon not 
only to stand up under 5 of ser- 

vice, but remain unaffected by the 

ontents. There are thousands of 
Redwood tanks in use for watt 
st"rage, in wineries, for oil, fire pro- 
tection, railroad - 1 

Redw id tank as well as pipi 
are not injured or at cted by arid 

ii mates <>r extremes of temperature. 

kedwood wears evenly under all sorts 
of vice. 



» 




R ■ the Km-g Tanning Co> SowFi f» j e since i Vote the 

b i pipes t arr, n the I ning pri 



WILL NOT SHRINK, SWELL OR WARP 



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CALIFORNIA 



REDWOOD 




Some machine banded wire wound Redwood pipe 



Pipe and Flume 

For pipe and flumes there is really no 
competition with Redwood, where 
permanency in installation and the 
highest type of service are demanded. 
Redwood makes a superior stave 
for pipe. There are many Redwood 
tave pi] i lines in o ration toda\ 

that have been in continuous servii 
from 20 to 30 year-, and show, un- 
der careful examination, no appre- 
ciable >igns of decay. The average 

life of Redwood stave pipe is not 

definite!} known. The original in- 

staltations made in i8^' >. 1889, and 
succeeding years, are still in practi- 
cally as good condition as when in- 
stalled, and it is fair to assume that 
he ultimate life of a well-built ( 011- 
tinuou- Stave Redwood pipe is from 

o to y^ years. 

Redwood is a nonconductor of 
heat and cold: 2 inches of Redwood 



is equivalent in insulating power to 

approximately 30 inches of steel or 
concrete. This is an element of high 
importance in the stave for this use 
because it preserves the temperature 
of the contents of pipe. 

Redwood staves are made from 
clear heart straight-grain stock and 
come in standard sets of 6 to 9 and 
10 to 20 feet in length. 

On large installations the COS* of 
Redwood pipe is about one-quarter 
the cost of cast iron, and from 25 to 
33 per cent less than steel. At the 
prevailing price of cast iron pipe I in 
May, 1917) a 24-inch Redwood pipe 

line would cosl about 25 per cent of 
a cast iron line of the same siz< 
while a 60-inch cast iron pipe [in 
would be entirely out of the question. 
as cat iron pipe i^ not made in that 
-ize. 

R.dwood pipe is u d as main 



mm 



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line- for municipal water plant-, pen- 

tocks for hydro-electric plant in 

mines where drain water is not 

>nly hot, but carries mineral and 
bemical solutions detrimental to 
metal an<l other kinds o wood pipe; 
for sluicing, conduits, -rut-rage dis- 
posal, irrigation systems, etc. 

Redwood pipe installations are 
made from inches up to [3 feet in 
diameter. It is made in two form- — 
"m hine banded" and what is known 



• continuous stave construction. 

"Machine handed" pipe is made in 
* oniph'ted Sections, in Standard 

■th of 6 to jo fret, from 2 to 32 
inches in diameter, and is shipped 

idy to he laid. 

u i ontiminus stave" pipe is a built- 
up installation! and is usually used 
r lines above 20 in< hes in diameter 
ml up to the largest si/e. It is 
hipped t<> tin/ in itallal ion as stave 
Tin sta\ e ai 1 angement is sta ered, 
nd the ends splined. I his gh i a 
continuous pipe line that is best 
adapt d for lon« lines oni ing 
lai \ olume of w ater 
• ( ontinuous stav< installations 

in handle, in 

large pipe a 
pressure head 

of about o 

and in 

1 r diame- 
ters 11 can be 
installed w ith 

strength suffi 

< nt to carry 

JOO t 1 id. 

\l .1 li i n e 

banded* 1 pipe 
can be made 
with a guaran- 
to with- 
stand a static 
pressure of 1 



feet. There are lines in Nevada can") - 
ing 500 feet head, ul li is 216 

pounds to the square inch. 

Redwood pipe in service and co 
offers these distini I advantages over 
metal : 

Costs less than any other pipe of e il 
efficiency. 

Has a life equal to any i e ex- 

c< St ir 

W r ill sur ent 

hoop *re bands e » tl 

or band / gaK 

with asp 

Carries from ro nt e 

w r tha 'her k i pipe when 

Ijoth > T >e\\ from pei it 

re wh< 

Flow ( tcity t by 

accumul.it blisters and othi 

n er O" he inner walls, 
or concr e, 

decreases the fl fri 

• 
worn" i» 

clu »us white 

tropics. 

Not -I b> rhich i f in- 

ter pij 

Will 

th< 11 prei 

ith ii 

h M. th< I require rx 

\ tii tempe h 

as 

\\ I . st 

ed, md it even »e 

e 11 
Redv he 

hoi flu i I 

through it 

i - r 

5 e. 




£ t Re ttnu u> rjve v- nstd a i sypi by I 

( I Re i on n I an 



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A Redwood pipe is the highest type 
of service durability. As the durabil- 
ity of Redwood staves is 5 or 6 times 
that of naked steel hoops, it is usual 
to protect hoops with asphaltic or 
other protecting coatings. There is 
no definite rule as to the life of the 
teel band on a Redwood pipe. That 
depends entirely on the character of 
the soil that the pipe lies in. If it is 
salty it will attack the steel much 
more quickly than an installation in 
clay. In making Redwood - pipe in- 
stallations, the pipe companies inves- 
tigate the bed for the pipe very thor- 
oughly and the pipe is equipped with 
protected hoops to give it the maxi- 
mum life. 



Irrigation Boxes and Head 

Gates 

Irrigation boxes and head-gate are 
built of Redwood, to get the Red- 
wood service in long life. 

The same applies to drainage and 
sluice boxes. 

Redwood is being successfully 
used in California instead of porou 
tile to drain farm lands. This 1- usu- 
ally done by making a 3-sided box «>t 
1 x 12-inch boards, and setting the 
open side down. In this use it will 
last 15 years or more. 

Read the experience of a practical 
farmer : 



1 




This od line c ate head of too f< d n d f 

an J _{ , (. 



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Redwood irrigation boxes in California 



STAXDISII & HICKEV LTD. 

San Francisco, CaL, July 7, 1916. 
California K< dwood Assn., 

San 1 rancisco. 
Dear Sir: 

Referring to yours of July 6th. regard- 
ing use of Redwood boxes for drainage on 

11 ranch- — 

I have found it profitable to use Redwood 

in several thousand feet of drains. 

1 ditches are about five feet deep; the 

il is of such character they would rapidly 
fill unless tile or some substitute was put 
in. 

Knowing the lasting qualities of Redwood 
lie ground, we have put in boxes, with- 
out bottoms, using a No. 2 grade of com- 
mon Redwood, without sap. 

The interior rapacity of the boxes would 
run from 36 to 100 square inches. 

1 he cost of this box, compared with til- 
ing, is far cheaper, and, of course, the 
boxes can be much more expeditiously laid. 

Respectfully yours, 

Miles Standish. 

The great durability of Redwood 
in contact with wet ground, in addi- 
tion to its light weight and ease of 
working, puts it, as far as the Cali- 
forniacountry is concerned, in a class 
without competition for thi* purpose. 



Concrete Forms 

For concrete form lumber Redwood 
is exceptionally valuable because it 
does not curl or shrink, and can be 
used over and over again. 

This is particularly true in hot cli- 
mates where the sun, beating against 
the outside of the concrete form, 
warps other lumber by drying the 
exterior faster than the inside of the 
form board that is next to the wet 
concrete. 

It has been found by actual experi- 
ence with Redwood for concrete 
form lumber that — 

It strips better. 

Can be used over and over because it 
does not change its shape. 

It is easier and cheaper to handle by the 
carpenter- 
By tonguing and grooving the form lum- 
ber better results are secured, giving a 
tighter form and a smoother concrete job. 



WILL NOT SHRINK, SWELL OR WARP 



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C A L I F O R N I A 



REDWOOD 




d , s the finest ktnd of lumber for concret* forms because it Joes noi shrink or 

Redwood forms increase contractors' profits. Rubber tire plant of 

V.K. Sturges Co., Oakland, Calif 01 ma 



i n 



Redwood is particularly recommend- 
ed for wall and floor work. 

For I tiding residence-. \\ here con- 
crete foundation- are provided, a big 
a\ ing in the construction cost is pos- 
sible by using Redwood boards for 
i concrete form- for the founda- 
tions and later using the same I ards 
for L-athing the house. 

It has for years been the universal 
-ractice of contractors to use Red- 
wood for concrete forn in "foot- 
ing .' for pillar ■ etc., where the lum- 
1 5 left in the ground and where 
Redwood will last indefinitely with- 
out rotting. 

The following letters from con- 
tractors U stify a- to the high regard 
in which Redwood is held as a con- 
crete form lumber : 



GILDERSLEEVE 
CONTRACTING CO. 

NAPA,CAL. 

California Rkiavood Assn., 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Your letter of February 9th ' d 

and you wish me to give you 1 rea 
sons f«>r preferring Redwood t<> . 

lumtx r for concrete v rk. 

I have always used . . . lumber for 

all my work until last year, and r 
a part of mv work J used Redwood 

. . mixed. I found thai the I I- 
w i stripped in much better condi- 
tion than the . . and were trou d 
verv little from warping, while 1 

1 ould hardly be used after lying 

in the sun for three or four I 

u • d tin k' dv. id o r four or fi\ 

d it n in better conditio 
1.111 the . . . after it had been u 

We have little trouble with 

Redwood warping aftei it is nail< d in 

form'-, also the carpenters will 

work more I<< dv. I than .... 



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I employed Messrs. Bardvvell & Zim- 
merman, of Calistoga. to frame my 
bridges at Ukiah last year. A few days 
ago I met Mr. Bardwell and he said 
the experience he had while on our 
job had thoroughly cured him from 
using . . . lumber for concrete; no 
more . . . for him for concrete build- 
ing. 

You may be sure in the future I 

hall give Redwood the preference, 

even if it should cost a little more; it 

might take a few more stiffeners, but 

it is cheaper in the end. Yours truly, 

GlLDERSLEEVE CONTRACTING Co. 

CHRISTENSEN BROTHERS 

oakland, cal. 

California Redwood Assn., 

San Francisco, California. 
Gentlemen : In answer to your in- 
quiry of recent date as to why we 
used Redwood lumber for concrete 
forms on the Sturges lire Factory in 
Oakland, California, we wish to state 
that it was the first job upon which 
\\ had done so and it was experimen- 
tal with us. 



We had often spoken of Redwood 
for concrete forms, primarily because 
it was easy to handle and soft for 
nailing, and we thought that after 
stripping it could be iwd a second or 
third time. 

We are very pleased to say that the 
experiment far exceeded our expec- 
tations. The walls were twenty-two 
feet high and two hundred and eighty 
feet long, and after stripping we found 
no stains at all in the concrete walls 
and when the alkali came to the sur- 
face it shone as white and clear as any 
that has ever come through after us- 
ing pine lumber. The dampness on one 
>ide and the exposure to sun and air 
on the other seems to affect the lum- 
ber very little, and causes no warping 
as in other timber, thereby giving a 
smaller percentage of waste. 

For the above reasons we feel that 
in the future we shall use nothing but 
Redwood for forms, unless specified 
otherwise by the architect. Very truly 
yours, 

Christensen Bros., 

C. Christensen. 




Redwood concrete forms on big construction work 



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1 



Aain Street bridge. I lits, California. The rot istance of Ri i makes the floor and 

const n i this b* od fof any irs. The floor joists are $x 16 merchanl 

able" Re ood ; the rot flooring 2x8 "constn ion" Red >d , and th i footing 

2x merchantabli Redwood. For a wearing sur t th\ dge 

hed road oil and screenings 



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Cutters, Curbing, Etc. 

arge quantit i Redwood 3" x 

1 1" merchantable radc ire u I in 
I alifornia for curbinj unl guttei in 
I work, 
It is ( - melj durable in 
v lasting f re u 1 1 [5 to a 
pai in ularl) usei nl for out!) in 
tions of big - it ie and in small >m 
(unities, 

lui lining a »spo< 1] ulverl ub 
hi fa< e di ains, sumps, bulkh< 
tgging, vu I Ledw ood 1 .tn 1" d< 
1 nded upon foi from 15 to 2 yeai 
of usefuln* 

Man) small < « >mmunil u find 
antagc to u 1 ooden gut ai 
i hi bing u here st( me 1 a nol a aiiabl 
\l 1 1 i an) othei kind 1 w 1 n »<l foi f l 
1 1 vn e has : be 1 reo 1 I hile 
Redwood 1 an be put d< w n just 1 
1 i.il en 1 1 om the lumb< 1 yard It 
cont is its own natural pr< • itive. 



Sheet Piling 

R lurability in th 

tht- -und mal- ciall ilu- 

abl< piling It is i I in tl 

alii I) foi this pui 

ere dr ; >r »ai 

Iti icientl) sti tl 1 >u 1 

\>- and, u I, it 

be «l I 1 lasl n _ 

yea up Hi 

11 tl nl or mo tui I 

wood in I > 

thai ' 1 i\ i ■ ' I 

hi the \ tern nit 
d Hi 1 "l 

bulkl 

ommon on • ranch of 

|. Redwood is a 

I.- 1 
irdcd 

n 'in »r 

1 



■ ■ 



















f\ 



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